Paul Lachine

Válka, dluh a demokracie

NEW YORK – V době, kdy Spojené státy přijímají rozhodnutí zvýšit dluhový strop, který si samy stanovily, bychom udělali dobře, kdybychom měli na paměti, proč je americký veřejný dluh tak vysoký a jaký to má význam. Vzhledem k vzestupu hnutí Čajový dýchánek budou možná republikáni proti zvýšení dluhového stropu brojit, ale nakonec pravděpodobně ustoupí, mimo jiné i proto, že války financované z dluhu – například války v Afghánistánu a v Iráku – se obhajují snáze než průběžně financované konflikty, které musí voliči platit předem ze svých daní.

Rýsující se debata v USA odhaluje jeden obecnější argument: válka je už od nepaměti dvousečnou zbraní. Lidské společnosti se navzájem masakrovaly a utiskovaly v míře, která se vyrovná nejhorším katastrofám matky přírody. Války však také přinášely prospěšné změny, poněvadž mobilizace lidí k boji zároveň mobilizuje lidi pro politiku.

V dějinách najdeme bezpočet příkladů, kdy válka šířila hlas těch, kdo poskytovali prostředky k boji. Starověké Atény se staly „demokracií“ – tedy doslova vládou lidu –, když Kleisthenés zorganizoval obyčejné rybáře a farmáře v mohutný dav schopný porazit oligarchy podporované Spartou. Jejich politickou svobodu zajišťovalo spoléhání se Atén na personálně náročnou námořní válku proti Peršanům a dalším nepřátelům.

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