Paul Lachine

مطلوب: زعامة صينية لنظام العملات

واشنطن، العاصمة ـ الحق إنني أشاطر الناس في مختلف أنحاء العالم انزعاجهم إزاء الاختلال الذي يعيب نظام صرف العملات العالمية. ويتحدث وزير مالية البرازيل عن حرب عملات كامنة، والواقع أنه لم يبالغ كثيرا: ففي أسواق العملة تتفاعل وتتصادم سياسات اقتصادية متباينة وأنظمة اقتصادية وسياسية مختلفة.

إن نظام سعر الصرف السائد غير متوازن. فقد ربطت الصين في الأساس عملتها بالدولار، في حين تتذبذب أسعار أغلب العملات الأخرى بقدر أو آخر من الحرية. وتتبنى الصين نظاماً يتألف من مستويين حيث يتم التحكم في حساب رأس المال بكل صرامة؛ في حين لا تميز أغلب العملات الأخرى بين الحساب الجاري وحساب رأس المال. وهذا من شأنه أن يجعل الرنمينبي (عملة الصين) منخفضاً عن قيمته الحقيقية بشكل مزمن، وأن يضمن للصين فائضاً تجارياً ضخماً ثابتا.

والأهم من ذلك أن هذا الترتيب يسمح للحكومة الصينية باقتطاع شريحة كبيرة من قيمة الصادرات الصينية من دون التدخل عن طريق الحوافز التي تحمل الناس على العمل بكل جد وتجعل عملهم مثمراً للغاية. ولهذا الترتيب نفس تأثير الضرائب، ولكنه يعمل على نحو أفضل كثيرا.

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