La volte-face de la Chine à l’égard de la Corée du Nord

BEIJING – Après un printemps où les tensions dans la péninsule coréenne ont resurgi, la grande agitation sur le plan diplomatique des dernières semaines a suscité les espoirs d’une rencontre des esprits, du moins entre la Chine, la Corée du Sud et les États-Unis. Mais l’heure n’est pas encore arrivée pour un consensus viable sur les moyens de réduire au minimum les risques de sécurité découlant de l’humeur changeante de la Corée du Nord.

Après une réunion qui a semblé très mouvementée entre le président Chinois Xi Jinping et le maréchal Choe Ryong-hae, l’une des quatre têtes dirigeantes de la Corée du Nord, le sommet entre les États-Unis et la Chine qui s’est tenu en Californie avait la Corée du Nord comme point central de discussion. L’évènement a été succédé juste après par un sommet à Beijing entre Xi Jinping et le président de la Corée du Sud Park Geun-hye. Le fait que Xi Jinping ait participé aux trois réunions fait ressortir deux vérités : la politique de la Chine envers la Corée du Nord est la clé de la solution aux problèmes que pose la Corée du Nord. Et la Chine est sans doute activement à la recherche d’une nouvelle stratégie à l’égard d’un allié plutôt erratique.

L’intérêt de la Chine dans une nouvelle politique à l’égard de la Corée du Nord n’est pas entièrement neuf. Après tout, la Chine a fait évoluer sa politique envers ce pays ces deux dernières décennies dans une direction plus constructive qui reflète l’influence internationale grandissante de la Chine, ainsi que l’adoption prudente par ses dirigeants du rôle international qui vient avec sa puissance économique émergente.

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