Pour un cessez-le-feu en Syrie

BERLIN – La conférence Genève 2 sur la Syrie, qui doit débuter à Montreux, Suisse, le 22 janvier, a peu de chance d’atteindre son objectif de formation d’un gouvernement de transition doté de tous les pouvoirs exécutifs. Mais ce qu’elle peut faire est initier un processus politique éminemment nécessaire et plus important encore, faire adopter un cessez-le-feu par le régime et les forces d’opposition. Ce n’est que lorsque les combats auront cessé que la Syrie pourra envisager de véritables progrès en vue d’une transition politique.

Les groupes djihadistes affiliés à Al-Qaïda, comme l’État islamique en Irak et au Levant (EIIL), qui est devenu une force avec laquelle compter sur le terrain, et le Front al-Nosra, ne doivent pas être et ne seront pas représentés à Montreux – en particulier parce qu’ils ne se sentiront pas liés par un accord. Mais cela ne doit pas servir d’excuse pour ne pas rechercher un cessez-le-feu. Après tout, mettre fin aux combats entre les forces du régime et certains groupes armés – notamment ceux qui sont associés à la Coalition nationale syrienne (CNS) ou au moins prêts à coordonner leurs actions avec l’Armée syrienne libre (ASL) et le Front islamique, en partie soutenu par l’Arabie saoudite – serait un succès majeur.

Un cessez-le-feu est indispensable, parce que la poursuite des combats sert les intérêts des groupes les plus brutaux des deux parties du conflit – d’une part le noyau dirigeant du régime du président Bachar el-Assad, aujourd’hui soutenu par le Hezbollah et des milices irakiennes, et de l’autre, l’EIIL, en grande partie composé de combattants non syriens, peu soucieux de la reconstruction du pays ou de la sauvegarde de l’avenir de la population syrienne.

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