Catherine Ashton European External Action Service

Europa en un mundo multipolar

BERLÍN – Un aspecto de la crisis en Ucrania que Rusia y Occidente tienen que entender es que el resto del mundo parece no interesarle el tema del todo. Aunque Occidente, junto con Japón, pueden considerar la crisis como un desafío al orden mundial, la mayoría de los demás Estados no se sienten en riesgo por la anexión de Crimea por Rusia u otros proyectos que tenga en ese país. En cambio, muchos perciben la crisis principalmente como la incapacidad de Europa para resolver sus propias disputas regionales –aunque un resultado exitoso podría dar un impulso a la influencia de Europa en el mundo como actor de mantenimiento de la paz.

A medida que la crisis en Ucrania se desarrollaba, en Rusia los responsables del diseño de políticas y comentaristas hablaban del “final de la era de la posguerra fría”, mientras que el viceprimer ministro ruso, Dimitri Rogozin, incluso parecía dar la bienvenida al comienzo de la nueva Guerra Fría. Dichos deseos se basan en la idea de que un conflicto entre Rusia y Occidente definiría una vez más todo el sistema internacional, lo que daría así nuevamente a Rusia su estatus de superpotencia.

Sin embargo, lo anterior no va a suceder. Como lo muestran las reacciones de las potencias emergentes a la crisis en Ucrania, la política mundial ya no está definida por lo que sucede en Europa, incluso cuando se está gestando allí un conflicto mayor. El sistema internacional se ha vuelto tan multipolar que ningún Estado no europeo puede ahora elegir velar por sus propios intereses en lugar de sentir la obligación de apoyar a Oriente u Occidente.

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