Vietnam : les leçons chinoises

TOKYO – Dans les trente années qui ont suivi la seconde guerre mondiale, le Vietnam a été sous les feux de la rampe internationale. Ses victoires sur la France et les Etats-Unis furent les guerres déterminantes d’indépendance de l’ère post-coloniale. Mais depuis ces scènes immortelles d’hélicoptères de l’armée américaine survolant l’ambassade américaine abandonnée de Saigon en 1975, le Vietnam a globalement disparu de la conscience internationale.

Ce n’est plus le cas. La position stratégique du Vietnam –  en tant que voisin de la Chine, et parallèle aux grandes routes de navigation maritime de l’Asie – a toujours conféré une considérable importance à ce pays, ce qui peut en partie expliquer pourquoi ses guerres anticoloniales ont été si longues. Ces dernières années, cependant, l’importance stratégique du Vietnam s’est considérablement accrue, grâce à la formidable – mais pas toujours bien reconnue – évolution de ses performances économiques et des orientations de sa politique étrangère.

Revigorée par deux décennies de croissance économique rapide et une large ouverture sur le monde extérieur, le Vietnam est aujourd’hui devenu un acteur majeur de la région en matière d’affaires économiques et de sécurité. En effet, le pays a joué un rôle essentiel dans la mise en place du nouvel ordre sécuritaire émergeant de l’Asie ces derniers mois.

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