Irak: La justice des vainqueurs

Saddam Hussein est mort, mais tous les Irakiens ne s’en réjouissent pas. Au contraire, la manière dont les différents groupes ethniques et religieux ont réagi à son exécution est emblématique de la difficulté à maintenir la cohésion de l’Irak.

Pour la majorité chiite, longtemps violemment opprimée par Saddam Hussein et par tous les précédents régimes irakiens d’obédience sunnite, la mort de Saddam symbolise leur conquête de l’hégémonie politique. Par ailleurs, leurs manifestations de liesse triomphalistes sont un rappel cruel de la manière dont les opprimés, une fois libérés, peuvent si facilement devenir des oppresseurs à leur tour.

Pour la minorité sunnite, écartée du pouvoir par l’invasion américaine et qui exprime sa frustration par des attaques quotidiennes contre la population chiite et ses lieux saints, Saddam restera un héros pour longtemps. Les Kurdes – qui comme les chiites, ont subi les exactions de Saddam pendant des décennies – s’accrochent discrètement à leur indépendance de fait, tout en faisant ce qu’il faut pour s’assurer qu’ils ne seront plus jamais soumis à un régime arabe.

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