Nicolas Maduro Secretaría de Comunicación/Flickr

Los cuestionables observadores de las elecciones en Venezuela

WASHINGTON, DC – Las elecciones parlamentarias que tendrán lugar en Venezuela en diciembre ofrecen un destello de esperanza a un país que enfrenta sombrías perspectivas. Si se implementan adecuadamente, ofrecen un canal institucional para gestionar la profunda polarización política y el creciente descontento popular del país. Dado que casi seguramente la oposición al régimen chavista del presidente Nicolás Maduro logrará, como mínimo, un avance importante, el resultado podría representar la puerta de entrada a negociaciones capaces de corregir la trayectoria autodestructiva venezolana.

Eso no será posible, sin embargo, a menos que las elecciones sean transparentes y creíbles. En el volátil clima político venezolano, garantizar un proceso justo requerirá la presencia de observadores internacionales de confianza para las elecciones, algo que hasta el momento Maduro no ha autorizado.

Según la Declaración de Principios para la Observación Internacional de Elecciones de 2005, un control confiable requiere que se cumplan cinco criterios. En primer lugar, los observadores deben ser autónomos –no solo financieramente– en su relación con el país anfitrión. En segundo lugar, los observadores deben poder acceder sin restricciones a todos los aspectos y fases del proceso electoral, así como a todas las tecnologías involucradas. En tercer lugar, los observadores no deben sufrir restricciones para mantener reuniones con todas las autoridades y actores políticos. En cuarto lugar, los observadores no deben recibir presiones ni amenazas de represalias por parte de ninguna autoridad gubernamental. Y, en quinto lugar, los observadores deben poder emitir declaraciones e informes públicos con sus hallazgos y recomendaciones.

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