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民粹主义经验的各种变体

伦敦—马克龙在法国总统竞选决战中决定性地击败玛丽娜·勒庞(Marine Le Pen),这是自由欧洲的一次伟大胜利。但这只是一场战斗,而不是整场战争。每三个法国公民就有一人投票给国民阵线的勒庞,这样的概念在几年前还令人无法置信。

评论家给目前席卷欧洲(和世界其余大部)的煽动政治贴上了“民粹主义”的标签。但是,除了民粹主义者常见的聒噪风格,这些运动还有那些共同点?毕竟,西班牙社会民主党(Podemos)和希腊左翼联盟(Syriza)属于左派。法国国民阵线、荷兰自由党(Party for Freedom)和德国另类选择党(AfD)属于右派。意大利五星运动(Five Star Movement)领导人毕普·格里洛(Beppe Grillo)则说他的运动既不左也不右。

但所有这些运动都有共同主题:经济民族主义、社会保护、反欧主义、反全球化,以及敌视政治建制甚至政治本身。

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