Vaclav Havel: un dissident au pouvoir

La vie de Vaclav Havel, dont le mandat présidentiel à la tête de la République tchèque va prendre fin, pourrait servir de modèle pour l'un des personnages de ses pièces de théâtre de l'absurde. Né en 1936 dans une des plus riches familles tchèques, M. Havel fut l'un de ceux que l'on persécuta du fait de leur « mauvaise appartenance de classe » lorsque les Communistes prirent la direction du pays en 1948.

M. Havel résista à son malheur et s'établit dans les années 1960 comme l'un des principaux auteurs de théâtre européen, avant de connaître à nouveau la déchéance du paria suite à l'invasion soviétique en Tchécoslovaquie, qui devait réprimer le mouvement de réforme connu sous le nom du « Printemps de Prague », en 1968. Mais il réapparut bientôt à la tête de la petite communauté dissidente de sa patrie. Connu dans le monde entier pour ses écrits et sa lutte contre le communisme, il a été l'objet d'un harcèlement incessant et a passé cinq années en prison au début des années 1980. En fait, il venait de sortir d'un autre séjour en prison quand la « Révolution de velours » de novembre 1989 le catapulta à la présidence.

Il est impossible de séparer chez M. Havel l'écrivain du dissident ou du leader politique. Ses premiers écrits étaient politiques, ridiculisant la rhétorique de la langue de bois communiste. Et même durant le Printemps de Prague et sa révolution libérale, M. Havel maintint sa dissidence, n'acceptant jamais l'idée d'un « socialisme à visage humain », et défendant plutôt une démocratie véritable comme seule alternative possible au communisme. Plus tard, toujours en dissidence, M. Havel poursuivit sa carrière d'écrivain et se lança dans la politique, devenant le leader officieux de l'opposition anticommuniste, avant d'en devenir le leader officiel lors du triomphe de l'opposition.

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