Corporate greed protest sign a.mina/Flickr

Geheime Machtübernahme durch die Konzerne

NEW YORK – Die Vereinigten Staaten und die Welt führen derzeit eine große Debatte über neue Handelsvereinbarungen. Derartige Verträge wurden früher als „Freihandelsabkommen“ bezeichnet; tatsächlich waren es gelenkte Handelsvereinbarungen, die auf die Interessen der Konzerne vor allem in den USA und der Europäischen Union zugeschnitten waren. Heute werden derartige Vereinbarungen häufig als „Partnerschaften“ bezeichnet – wie etwa im Falle der Trans-Pazifischen Partnerschaft (TPP). Doch es sind keine gleichberechtigten Partnerschaften: Faktisch diktieren die USA die Bedingungen. Zum Glück leisten Amerikas „Partner“ zunehmend Widerstand.

Es ist unschwer erkennbar, warum. Diese Übereinkommen reichen deutlich über den Handel hinaus; sie regeln auch Investitionen und geistiges Eigentum und zwingen den Rechts-, Justiz- und Regulierungssystemen der beteiligten Länder grundlegende Änderungen auf – und zwar ohne Einfluss oder Rechenschaftspflicht demokratischer Institutionen.

Der vielleicht unfairste – und unehrlichste – Bestandteil derartiger Übereinkommen betrifft den Investorenschutz. Natürlich müssen Investoren vor schurkischen Regierungen geschützt werden, die sich ihr Eigentum einverleiben. Aber darum geht es bei diesen Bestimmungen nicht. Es hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten sehr wenige Enteignungen gegeben, und Investoren, die sich dagegen absichern wollen, können eine Versicherung bei der zur Weltbankgruppe gehörenden Multilateralen Investitions-Garantie-Agentur abschließen. Die USA und andere Länder bieten ähnliche Versicherungen an. Trotzdem verlangen die USA die Aufnahme derartiger Bestimmungen in die TPP, obwohl viele ihrer „Partner“ Mechanismen zum Schutz des Eigentums und Rechtssysteme haben, die so gut sind wie ihre eigenen.

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