tech factory Frederico Scoppa | Stringer via getty images

反贸易的美国?

发自剑桥——反贸易民粹主义在2016年美国总统竞选期间的兴起预示着美国在世界事务中所扮演的角色出现了危险的倒退。而在减少美国国内不平等状况的口号下,民主共和两党的总统候选人们很可能令发展中国家中数以亿计的极度贫困人口晋身中产阶层的梦想最终破灭。如果反贸易政策的政治诉求能最终站稳脚跟的话,这将标志着全球经济事务中的一个历史性转折,并为美国未来领导角色的衰败埋下祸根。

共和党总统候选人唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump)提出要对中国出口到美国的商品施加45%的税率,并以此招徕了很多相信中国正在通过不公平贸易致富的美国人。但即便在近几十年间取得了惊人的成就,中国依然是一个发展中国家,其很大一部分人口仍然生活在按照西方标准根本无法想象的贫穷状况之下。

中国新近发布的第十三个五年计划希望在2020年令5500万人脱离贫困线——这只不过意味着年收入2300元人民币或354美元以上,相比之下美国为单身人士划定的贫困线是年入12000美元。虽然两地的生活成本差异令这种直接比较有点站不住脚,虽然贫穷(至少在发达经济体内部)不仅是经济状况,也有社会因素;但国家之间的不平等往往大于国家内部不平等的观点还是非常有说服力的。

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