美国军事创新的衰落

纽约—美国可能要失去它的军事优势。美国武装力量也许仍是世界上最先进的;毕竟,美国的军事研究和支出 开发是法国和俄罗斯等主要强国的两倍多,是中国和德国的九倍多。但美国的持续技术领导地位远非安枕无忧。

自2005年以来,美国国防部的研发支出削减了22%。2913年,作为避免债务上限问题陷入不可收拾局面而达成的协议的一部分,美国国会确定了1.2万亿美元规模的自动减支。这一动作要求无数项目减少支出,包括许多防务研究项目。美国总统奥巴马政府将其描述为“大大破坏了国家安全”。如果美国的防务创新继续节节败退,不但美国国防能力要蒙受损失,还有可能在商业创新和竞争力等方面也有所滑落。

预算限制是美国军方维持技术优势的最大挑战之一。陆军和导弹防御局(Missile Defense Agency)受影响尤重,自2005年研发支出削减了近一半。海军的研究预算削减了20%左右,而国防先进研究项目局(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,DARPA,负责让美国军队保持在技术曲线前沿的组织)的研发支出也削减了18%。甚至空军也被迫削减了大约14%的预算——传统上,空军研究支出一直是国会的重中之重。

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