Modi Obama share tea India Today/ZumaPress

La nueva armonía entre las grandes democracias

CAMBRIDGE – Cuando el Primer Ministro de la India, Narendra Modi, invitó al Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, a asistir a las ceremonias del Día de la República de su país en fecha anterior de este año, indicó un cambio importante en las relaciones entre las dos democracias mayores del mundo. Desde el decenio de 1990, tres gobiernos americanos han intentado mejorar las relaciones bilaterales, con resultados irregulares. Si bien el comercio entre los dos países se ha disparado durante ese período, de 20.000 millones de dólares a más de 100.000 millones, el comercio anual entre los EE.UU. y China es seis veces mayor y la relación política ha tenido altibajos.

Los dos países tienen una larga historia de confusión mutua. Por definición, cualquier alianza con una superpotencia es desigual, por lo que las medidas para establecer estrechos vínculos con los Estados Unidos han chocado con la tradición de autonomía estratégica de la India, pero los americanos no consideran a la India una amenaza estratégica. Al contrario: el éxito de la India es importante para los EE.UU. y varios factores prometen un futuro más brillante para su relación bilateral.

El factor más importante es la aceleración del crecimiento económico de la India, que, según la proyección del Fondo Monetario Internacional, superará el 7,5 por ciento hasta 2020. Durante decenios, la India sufrió lo que algunos llamaron “la tasa india de crecimiento económico”: un poco más del uno por ciento al año. Habría sido más apropiado llamarla la tasa socialista de crecimiento británica del decenio de 1930. Después de la independencia, en 1947, la India adoptó un sistema de planificación introvertido y centrado en la industria pesada.

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