Janet Yellen federal reserve Yin Bogu/ZumaPress

Stanchi della Fed

NEW YORK – Alla fine di ogni mese di agosto, i banchieri centrali e i finanzieri di tutto il mondo si incontrano a Jackson Hole, nel Wyoming, per il simposio economico della Federal Reserve degli Stati Uniti. Quest'anno, i partecipanti sono stati accolti da un ampio gruppo di persone per lo più giovani, tra cui molti afro-americani e ispanici.

Il gruppo non era lì tanto per protestare quanto per informare. Voleva che i policymaker riuniti sapessero che le loro decisioni influenzano la gente comune, non solo i finanzieri preoccupati delle conseguenze che ha l'inflazione sul valore dei loro titoli o di ciò che l’aumento dei tassi potrebbe comportare per le loro azioni in portafoglio. E le loro magliette verdi recavano il messaggio che, per questi americani, non c'è stata alcuna ripresa.

Anche ora, sette anni dopo la crisi finanziaria globale che ha innescato la Grande Recessione, la disoccupazione "ufficiale" tra gli afro-americani è di oltre il 9%. Secondo un’ampia (e più appropriata) definizione, che comprende i dipendenti part-time in cerca di posti di lavoro a tempo pieno e lavoratori marginalmente impiegati, il tasso di disoccupazione per gli Stati Uniti nel suo complesso è del 10,3%. Ma per gli afro-americani - soprattutto i giovani - il tasso è molto più elevato. Ad esempio, per gli afro-americani di età compresa tra i 17 e i 20 anni che si sono diplomati, ma non si sono iscritti al college, il tasso di disoccupazione supera il 50%. Il "divario occupazionale" - la differenza tra occupazione di oggi e quella che dovrebbe essere – è pari a circa tre milioni.

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