Verso l’urbanizzazione della Cina

PECHINO – Secondo le statistiche ufficiali, il tasso di urbanizzazione della Cina, calcolato in base alla percentuale di abitanti che vivono in città, si aggira attualmente attorno al 48%. Considerando che trent’anni fa la percentuale di cittadini corrispondeva solo al 18%, si tratta di un enorme passo avanti.

Ma non è ancora soddisfacente, dal momento che molti altri paesi in condizioni simili hanno sviluppato più rapidamente l’urbanizzazione rispetto all’industrializzazione. L’urbanizzazione della Cina è invece rimasta indietro rispetto al suo livello di industrializzazione, che ora si aggira attorno al 70%, calcolato in base alla percentuale di forza lavoro il cui reddito derivi principalmente da attività non rurali.

Un’altra notevole differenza tra la Cina e alcuni paesi in via di sviluppo è che le città cinesi, grandi o piccole che siano, non mostrano alcun segno di povertà urbana significativa o quartieri degradati. Spesso questo aspetto viene attribuito al sistema hukou di registrazione delle famiglie, che separa i privilegiati urbani e i poveri rurali e li lega ai loro luoghi di origine. Tuttavia, malgrado il sistema hukou non consenta agli abitanti delle campagne di godere di alcuni benefici urbani e servizi pubblici, quali la pubblica istruzione, l’assistenza medica o i sussidi di disoccupazione, non ha mai impedito ai lavoratori rurali di trasferirsi nelle zone urbane.

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