Job seekers fair in Indonesia Juni Kriswanto/Stringer

Novoroční rozvojová rezoluce

PEKING/PAŘÍŽ/NEW YORK – Britské hlasování o odchodu z Evropské unie a zvolení Donalda Trumpa příštím prezidentem Spojených států odhalily nespokojenost občanů rozvinutých zemí s globalizací. Ať už mají pravdu, nebo ne, vyčítají lidé globalizaci – nebo přinejmenším způsobu jejího řízení – vlastní stagnující příjmy, rostoucí nezaměstnanost a sílící nejistotu.

Občané rozvojových zemí vyjadřují podobné pocity už mnohem déle. Ačkoliv globalizace přinesla rozvojovému světu mnoho výhod, řada lidí má výhrady vůči neoliberální ekonomické teorii, na jejímž základě je globalizace řízena. S velkou kritikou se během let setkal zejména takzvaný washingtonský konsensus, jenž vyzývá k nezkrocené liberalizaci a privatizaci a jehož makroekonomická politika klade důraz spíše na inflaci než na zaměstnanost a růst. Přišel čas přehodnotit konvenční ekonomické poučky?

Švédská agentura pro mezinárodní rozvojovou spolupráci (Sida) pokládala tuto otázku za vhodnou k zevrubnější úvaze. Vyzvala proto 13 ekonomů z celého světa (včetně autorů tohoto článku – čtyř bývalých hlavních ekonomů Světové banky), aby se jí zabývali.

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