refugee aid Louisa Gouliamaki | Stringer via Getty Images

Des objectifs de développement intenables ?

OXFORD – Entre 2000 et 2015, les Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD) ont axé les mentalités et les budgets sur la pauvreté à travers le monde, aboutissant à une amélioration significative des perspectives des populations dans certains des pays les plus pauvres de la planète. Le nouvel ensemble d'objectifs mondiaux, les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD), vise à capitaliser sur ces avancées, non seulement en éradiquant la pauvreté, mais également en appréhendant plusieurs autres défis, parmi lesquels l'amélioration de l'accès à l'éducation ou encore la préservation de l'environnement. Seulement voilà, cette fois-ci, les vents contraires soufflent violemment.

Plusieurs évolutions politiques récentes, telles que la crise des réfugiés au Moyen-Orient, viennent compliquer les programmes et les budgets des gouvernements, d'autant plus que les prix des produits de base ainsi que les investissements des économies émergentes, facteurs qui avaient jusqu'ici favorisé l'accomplissement des OMD, subissent désormais un effondrement. À défaut d'innovations audacieuses, il sera impossible de conférer une durabilité au nouvel agenda de développement.

À l'heure actuelle, les aides émanant des principaux donateurs se trouvent discrètement redéployées. En effet, la plupart des grands pays donateurs réorientent actuellement ces aides vers l'atténuation du flux de réfugiés en provenance du Moyen-Orient, et particulièrement de Syrie. La crise des réfugiés a également modifié les priorités de politique intérieure. En Suède, pas moins de 30 % du budget des aides est aujourd'hui consacré à l'accueil des réfugiés, ce chiffre s'élevant à 20 % pour la Suisse.

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