释放非洲女孩的力量

马普托—撒哈拉以南非洲经济体在近几年十分繁荣。但新闻标题的数字常常掩盖长期问题——不光是过度依赖自然资源和长期不平等的问题。可持续的包容性增长是可以实现的,但只有释放这个大洲最大的能量和创造性之源才行——那就是非洲妇女和女孩。

卫生和发展专家、经济学家、非政府组织、联合国机构以及银行都同意,释放非洲的潜力取决于扩大妇女的教育、自由和就业机会。如今,许多非洲妇女不但要扮演传统角色(如抚养孩子和照顾老人),还面临着土地和财产权利、继承、教育、获得信用和技术等方面的法律和社会歧视——当然还有压迫性性习俗和暴力。

但性别平等是非洲大陆福祉的必要条件。以粮食安全这一紧迫问题为例。妇女构成了农业部门劳动力的半壁江山,她们为家庭种植、出售、购买和准备粮食。研究表明,平等地获得资源将让农地产量提高20—30%,抵消干旱和气候变化的影响。获得教育、资本、市场和技术能让妇女处理、打包和推销她们的产品,特别是面向非洲不断增加的中产阶级,从而同时改善收入和粮食供给。

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