Berkeley protests Max Whittaker/Getty Images

特朗普时代的公共领域

发自伯克利——在许多社会中,大学是意识形态和智识独立的主要堡垒。我们依靠大学将价值观传递给年轻人,并支撑对人类生存境况的短期和长期研究。而在特朗普治下的美国,这一机构的作用比以往任何时候都更为重要。

与大学不同,营利性媒体企业从来无需承担培育一个强大“公共领域”的任务。不可避免的是,它们的报道反映了自身取悦——或者至少不去触怒——背后金主(广告商或投资者)的巨大压力。这也是为何美国作家和政治评论家沃尔特·李普曼(Walter Lippmann)—— 他本身就是新闻老手——最终将自己的信任托付在为大学,智库或其他细分领域工作的公共知识分子身上。

在二战后的大部分时期,营利性媒体的结构性畸形状态相对无害。滋生了全球性纳粹和法西斯主义的极右翼势力遭到了政治放逐,而极左翼势力也好不到哪里去:苏联集团那种“社会主义真实样板”不仅杀人如麻,而且效率极低。

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