Unir las flotas de Europa

PARIS – De las 23 fuerzas navales de Europa, sólo la de Francia posee un portaaviones plenamente operativo, el buque insignia Charles de Gaulle de 40.000 toneladas. Si bien el Reino Unido actualmente está construyendo dos portaaviones propios, la Marina Real está a años de distancia de poder ofrecer poder aéreo instantáneo desde el mar. Sin embargo, Europa está razonablemente equipada para defenderse de las amenazas externas. Más difícil le resultará, en cambio, hacer frente a los recortes presupuestarios que se avizoran en el horizonte.

La estrategia de seguridad marítima de Europa desde hace mucho tiempo está basada en dos principios elementales. Primero, las rutas comerciales marítimas, que representan casi el 85% de las exportaciones e importaciones totales de la Unión Europea, deben mantenerse libres y seguras. Y, segundo, los países europeos deben mantener la capacidad de lidiar con cualquier crisis de seguridad importante.

Los acontecimientos internacionales resaltan la relevancia de estas prioridades. Por ejemplo, las crecientes tensiones con Irán podrían obligar a Europa a desplegar sus fuerzas navales para formar un bloqueo alrededor del Golfo Pérsico, y así asegurar el tránsito del petróleo. De la misma manera, la piratería en el Golfo de Guinea y el Océano Indico, particularmente a lo largo de la costa de Somalia, amenaza las actividades marítimas de Europa, incluido su amplio comercio marítimo.

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