Cuban man sitting Les Haines/Flickr


马德里—领导人常常沦为他们所处社会政治环境的人质而不是决定者。世界极少见到1972年尼克松访问中国或1977年埃及总统萨达特(Anwar el-Sadat)访问耶路撒冷这样的改变历史的举动。


美国总统要想挑战政治约束,只能通过强大的游说。卡特总统成功牵线了以色列-埃及和解,并大胆地喊出了“巴勒斯坦故土”(他也成为第一个如此称呼的美国总统),在很大程度上都要归因于他无视犹太人的声音和组织。类似地,1991年10月,如果老布什不愿拿出他描述为由“一千名国会山游说者”所组成的“一些强大的政治力量”,他就无法迫使顽固的以色列总理沙米尔(Yitzhak Shamir)出席马德里和平会议。

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