Unilateralismus versus multilateralismus

Nová strategická doktrína prezidenta Bushe hlásá, že přestože Spojené státy budou hledat podporu pro svou politiku u členů mezinárodního společenství, nebude se Amerika rozpakovat jednat sama, bude-li potřeba, aby uplatnila své právo sebeobrany. Řada spojenců USA tvrdí, že přehnanou jednostrannost zahraniční politiky Bushovy vlády nesnáší, přitom však i prezident Clinton prohlašoval, že Amerika musí být připravena jednat na vlastní pěst, pokud nebude existovat jiná alternativa. Diskuse o unilateralismu a multilateralismu jsou tak značně zjednodušené.

Mezinárodní pravidla zavazují Spojené státy a omezují svobodu jejich jednání, ale zároveň slouží americkým zájmům tím, že k plnění pravidel a norem zavazují i ostatní státy. Možnost, aby i jiné státy projevily svůj názor a ovlivňovaly americkou politiku, jsou navíc významným impulsem k tomu, aby se staly spojenci Spojených států. Členství USA v řadě nadnárodních institucí jako NATO nebo OSN sice možná snižuje autonomii USA, ale ve světle konstitucionálních dohod je multilaterální složka stávajícího předního postavení Ameriky klíčem k jeho dlouhému trvání, poněvadž omezuje snahy budovat spojenectví proti ní.

Multilateralismus je ovšem otázkou úrovně a ne všechny multilaterální úmluvy jsou dobré. Spojené státy by měly příležitostně - stejně jako ostatní země - používat unilaterální taktiku. Otázkou teď ale je kdy a kde.

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