L'Occident doit être solidaire face au réchauffement climatique

WASHINGTON – Le président Obama considère le réchauffement climatique comme le plus grand défi de notre temps. C'est pourquoi il veut faire progresser la législation américaine relative au système de permis d'émission négociables ( cap-and-trade ) tout en réengageant pleinement les USA dans les négociations de l'ONU.

Ce n'est pas pour autant que les USA et l’Union européenne vont parvenir à un accord sur la manière de faire face au réchauffement climatique. Malgré une convergence sur les objectifs à long terme (une réduction de quelques 80% des émissions de gaz carbonique en 2050), de nombreux points restent en suspens. Il faudra que les deux cotés fassent preuve de leadership pour que ne se produise pas à Copenhague le type d'échec évité de peu à Kyoto en 1997. Quels sont les points les plus délicats ?

Tout d'abord, l'UE et les USA ne partent pas des mêmes positions dans la course à la réduction des émissions. Lorsque les 15 pays de l'UE ont ratifié le protocole de Kyoto, ils se sont engagés à ramener leur niveau d'émission en 2012 à un niveau inférieur de 8% à ce qu'il était en 1990. Les USA restant en dehors du protocole de Kyoto, la hausse du volume de leurs émissions de gaz à effet de serre a été de 19% entre 1990 et 2005, alors qu'elle n'a été que de 8% pour les pays de l'Europe des 15, au-dessus néanmoins des objectifs de Kyoto.

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