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超越失业

发自米兰——在二战后的大部分时段,经济政策都集中在失业问题上。大萧条期间的大规模失业——只有在二战时才得以逆转,以及为资助就业和启动经济增长而积累的巨额债务——对至少两代人产生了持久的影响。但就业只是福利的一个方面,而在当今世界,光实现就业是不够的。

二战与1980年之间的增长模式基本上是良性的。期间虽然出现过经济衰退,但失业率持续维持在低水平。劳动收入占总收入的份额逐渐提升,尤其是中等收入群体实现了更大程度的繁荣和向上流动。美国以及其他国家央行的任务也很简单:维持充分就业并控制通胀。

这种关注失业率的思维方式如今仍然存在。比如针对人工智能和自动化的讨论就反映了对技术性失业的日益忧虑。美国经济被认为相对健康,因为失业率处于历史低位,增长温和,通胀也受到了抑制。

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