Alex Wong/Getty Images

فهم مجمع أميركا الاٍنتخابي

واشنطن العاصمة - على أي شخص يتابع السباق الرئاسي في الولايات المتحدة أن يُدرك أن استطلاعات الرأي العام الوطني لا تقدم صورة دقيقة لمُجرى الاٍنتخابات. وبفضل مجمع أميركا الاٍنتخابي، ليس من يفوز بأكبر عدد من الأصوات على الصعيد الوطني هو ما يهم في النهاية، ولكن من يفوز في كل الولايات.

وتمنح كل ولاية عددا من الأصوات في المجمع الاٍنتخابي، وهذا يتوقف على حجم سكانها. ويفوز بالرئاسة المرشح الذي يعبر عتبة 270 صوتا اٍنتخابيا.

في كل ولاية تقريبا، المرشح الذي يفوز ب 50.1٪ من أصوات الناخبين يتم منحه 100٪ من الأصوات الاٍنتخابية. (فقط ولايتي ميين ونبراسكا لا تتبعان قاعدة 'الفائز يتحكم في كل شيء'؛ بل يقتسمان تصويت الهيئة الاٍنتخابية حسب تقسيم المناطق بالكونغرس). ونتيجة لذلك، فإن أصوات الملايين من الناس الذين أدلوا بأصواتهم في نهاية المطاف لا تُحسب. وإذا كنتَ جمهوريا في نيويورك أو كاليفورنيا، اللتان يسيطر عليهما الحزب الديمقراطي، أو ديمقراطيا في ولايتي وايومنغ أو ميسيسيبي، وهما جمهوريتان على نحو موثوق، يمكنك التخلي عن صوتك من أجل الرئيس.

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