anti-g8 protests Sean Gallup/Getty Images

La Globalizzazione Alimenta Davvero il Populismo?

BRUXELLES – Sulle due sponde dell’Atlantico è in aumento il populismo, sia di sinistra che di destra. Negli Stati Uniti, il suo alfiere più in vista è Donald Trump, probabile candidato presidenziale del partito repubblicano. In Europa ce ne sono diverse espressioni – dal partito di sinistra spagnolo Podemos al Fronte Nazionale della destra francese – ma tutte condividono la stessa opposizione ai partiti centristi, e in generale all’establishment. Cosa significa la crescente rivolta degli elettori contro lo status quo?

La spiegazione prevalente è che il populismo in ascesa equivalga ad una ribellione da parte dei “perdenti della globalizzazione”. Perseguendo successivi cicli di liberalizzazione del commercio, continua tale argomentazione, i leader statunitensi ed europei “hanno svuotato” le basi produttive nazionali, riducendo la disponibilità di posti di lavoro altamente retribuiti per lavoratori poco qualificati, che ora devono scegliere tra disoccupazione di lunga durata e lavori umili nel settore dei servizi. Stufi, adesso questi lavoratori presumibilmente rifiutano i partiti dell’establishment per aver diretto questo “progetto d’elite”.

In un primo momento, questa spiegazione potrebbe sembrare convincente. Dopotutto, è vero che la globalizzazione ha fondamentalmente trasformato le economie, destinando i posti di lavoro a bassa qualificazione al mondo in via di sviluppo – un punto che gli esponenti del populismo non si stancano mai di mettere in evidenza.

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