anti-g8 protests Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Heizt die Globalisierung wirklich den Populismus an?

BRÜSSEL – Auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks nimmt der Populismus zu, und zwar auf der Linken wie auf der Rechten. Sein sichtbarster Bannerträger in den USA ist Donald Trump, der voraussichtliche Präsidentschaftskandidat der Republikaner. In Europa gibt es viele Stränge – von der linken Podemos-Partei in Spanien bis hin zum rechtsradikalen Front National in Frankreich – aber allen gemein ist die Opposition gegenüber den Parteien der Mitte und dem Establishment im Allgemeinen. Wie lässt sich die zunehmende Revolte der Wähler gegen den Status quo begründen?

Laut der vorherrschenden Erklärung läuft der zunehmende Populismus auf eine Rebellion der „Globalisierungsverlierer“ hinaus. Durch sukzessive Runden der Handelsliberalisierung hätten die Regierungen in den USA und Europa die heimische Produktionsbasis „ausgehöhlt“ und die Verfügbarkeit hochbezahlter Arbeitsplätze für gering qualifizierte Arbeitnehmer verringert; diese hätten nun nur noch die Wahl zwischen Langzeitarbeitslosigkeit und untergeordneten Tätigkeiten im Dienstleistungssektor. Diese Arbeitnehmer hätten nun genug und lehnten daher die etablierten Parteien ab, die dieses „elitäre Projekt“ angeführt hätten.

Diese Erklärung mag auf den ersten Blick überzeugend scheinen. Schließlich hat die Globalisierung ja wirklich viele Volkswirtschaften grundlegend verändert und zur Auslagerung geringqualifizierter Arbeitsplätze in die Dritte Welt geführt – ein Punkt, den die Populisten zu betonen nie müde werden.

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