anti-g8 protests Sean Gallup/Getty Images

全球化是否真的助长了民粹主义?

布鲁塞尔——在大西洋的两岸,左翼及右翼民粹主义都在呈现崛起之势。共和党假定总统候选人唐纳德·特朗普是民粹主义在美国最鲜明的棋手。欧洲的民粹主义势力则分很多种——从西班牙左翼政党Podemos到法国右翼政党国民阵线——他们的共同点是反对中间党派,并且反对总体制度。究竟什么应该为选民不断增长的对现状的反抗负责?

普遍为人接受的解释是民粹主义崛起是由“全球化失败者”的反抗所导致的。这种逻辑认为,欧美领导人连续多轮的贸易自由化谈判“掏空”了国内生产基地,削减了低技能工人可以找到的高薪岗位数量,导致这些人被迫在长期失业和琐碎的服务性岗位之间作出选择。这些人受够了这样的现状,据称现在正因为当权党派领衔开展上述“精英工程”而对其抱有一种抗拒态度。

这种解释乍听上去似乎很有说服力。毕竟,全球化的的确确从根本上改变了经济现状,实现了低技能工作向发展中国家的转移——民粹主义分子对这一点的强调永远都是不厌其烦的。

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