Gestion des conflits et croissance économique

NEW DELHI – L'un des aspects les plus intéressants de la crise économique qui se prolonge en Europe, ainsi que de celle, plus longue encore, au Japon, est l'absence de graves conflits sociaux – du moins jusqu'à présent. Certes, il y a eu des grèves, des manifestations et une colère croissante envers les dirigeants politiques, mais les protestations ont été largement pacifiques.

Bien que cela puisse changer, les honneurs pour cette paix sociale doivent aller aux institutions telles que les élections (« jeter les vauriens dehors » est une façon non-violente de décharger la colère populaire), les parlements démocratiques réceptifs et les systèmes judiciaires efficaces. L’ensemble de ces institutions est parvenu à arbitrer des conflits politiques dans une période de grande adversité dans les pays avancés.

Ceci suggère qu’une raison majeure du sous-développement pourrait être que ces institutions, qui permettent aux pays de faire face à la détresse, manquent dans les pays pauvres. La croissance économique permet de masquer des conflits entre les acteurs sociaux. Un ralentissement, par contre, révèle habituellement, voire avive, les tensions sociales latentes.

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