Homelessness Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

عودة إلى التفكير في الدخل الأساسي

لندن ــ بريطانيا ليست الدولة الوحيدة التي تعقد استفتاء هذا الشهر. ففي الخامس من يونيو/حزيران رَفَض الناخبون السويسريون بأغلبية ساحقة، 77% في مقابل 23%، اقتراحا يقضي بضمان دخل أساسي غير مشروط لكل مواطن. ولكن هذه النتيجة غير المتوازنة لا تعني أن هذه القضية قد تنتهي في أي وقت قريب.

الواقع أن فكرة الدخل الأساسي غير المشروط كانت تظهر بشكل متكرر في التاريخ ــ كانت البداية مع توماس باين في القرن الثامن العشر. ولكن من المرجح أن يطول أمد ظهورها هذه المرة، خاصة وقد أصبح حصول الفقراء والأقل تعليما على دخل كاف من الوظائف احتمالا متزايد الضآلة. وكانت التجارب على التحويلات النقدية غير المشروطة جارية في البلدان الفقيرة والغنية على حد سواء.

إن الدخل الأساسي غير المشروط مزيج غير مستقر إلى حد ما يجمع بين التخفيف من حِدة الفقر ورفض العمل بوصفه غاية أساسية في الحياة. والمكون الأول في هذا المزيج سياسي وعملي؛ أما الثاني فهو فلسفي أو أخلاقي.

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