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Los inevitables costes del helicóptero monetario

MÚNICH – El prolongado debate sobre la conveniencia del llamado helicóptero monetario ha ido cambiando a medida que aparecen nuevas ideas sobre qué forma tendría y se pregunta si ya se está utilizando en algunas economías. En todo caso, no ha cambiado la noción de que sería muy mala idea adoptarlo.

Se trata de un recurso por el que los bancos centrales insuflan dinero recién impreso a la economía sin registrar activos o pasivos en sus balances como contrapeso. Puede ser a través de transferencias de efectivo al público o monetización de la deuda pública; en ambos casos resulta ser una pérdida permanente para el banco central.

En la práctica puede parecerse mucho a la facilitación cuantitativa, es decir, la compra por parte de los bancos centrales de bonos públicos en los mercados monetarios para inyectar liquidez al sistema bancario. La versión del helicóptero monetario sería la adquisición de bonos públicos sin tasa de interés y que nunca se pagarán, ya sea por ser bonos a perpetuidad o porque se renuevan cada vez que caduquen.

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