Год устойчивости

НЬЮ-ЙОРК – Десять лет назад, в январе 2005 года, представители 168 стран-членов ООН встретились в Кобе, столице японской префектуры Хёго, чтобы решить, как лучше справляться с опасностью стихийных бедствий после разрушительного цунами в Индийском океане, унесшего более 227 тысяч жизней. В течение пяти дней, один из которых пришелся на годовщину землетрясения 1995 года в Кобе, они составили Хиогскую рамочную программу действий (Hyogo Framework for Action, сокращенно HFA), включившую в себя целую серию мер, нацеленных на «снижение ущерба жизни людей, а также социальным, экономическим и природным активам государств и обществ».

Ровно через два месяца страны-члены ООН соберутся на третью Всемирную конференцию по снижению риска стихийных бедствий в другом японском городе, ставшем синонимом природной катастрофы, – в Сендае, центре региона Тохоку, на который в 2011 году пришлись основные удар землетрясения и цунами, вызвавших аварию на атомной электростанции Фукусима. На уме у всех на этой встрече будет один вопрос: а жил ли мир согласно амбициозным целям Хиогской программы?

События минувшего десятилетия, отмеченного самыми худшими из известных природных катастроф, свидетельствуют, скорее, о неблагоприятном ответе. Порт-о-Пренс разрушен землетрясением. Ураган «Катрина» уничтожил Новый Орлеан. Засуха погубила несчитанное число людей в районе Африканского рога. Наводнения и землетрясения обрушились на миллионы людей в Пакистане и Китае. Жара и лесные пожары нанесли громадный ущерб многим странам по всему миру.

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