L'année de la résilience face aux catastrophes naturelles

NEW YORK – Il y aura dix ans ce mois-ci, les représentants de 168 États membres des Nations Unies se sont réunis à Kobe, la capitale de la préfecture de Hyogo au Japon, pour décider d'une meilleure gestion des risques suite au tsunami dévastateur de l'océan Indien, qui a coûté plus de 227 000 vies. Cinq jours durant, comprenant notamment l'anniversaire du tremblement de terre de Kobe de 1995, ils ont élaboré le Cadre d'action de Hyogo (HFA), un train de mesures visant à « réduire les pertes en vies et en capitaux sociaux, économiques et environnementaux des communautés et des pays. »

Dans deux mois, les États membres de l'ONU se réuniront pour la troisième Conférence mondiale sur la prévention des catastrophes dans une autre ville japonaise synonyme de risques de catastrophe : Sendai, le centre de la région de Tōhoku, qui a le plus souffert du tremblement de terre et du tsunami de 2011 qui ont conduit à la crise nucléaire de Fukushima. A cette réunion, tous les participants auront la même question en tête : le monde a-t-il été à la hauteur des objectifs ambitieux du Cadre d'action de Hyogo (HFA) ?

Le bilan de la dernière décennie (marquée par quelques-unes des pires catastrophes naturelles recensées) est loin d'être favorable. Port-au-Prince s'est effondrée dans un tremblement de terre. L'ouragan Katrina a dévasté la Nouvelle-Orléans. La sécheresse a tué un nombre indéterminé de personnes dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Les inondations et les tremblements de terre ont touché des millions de personnes au Pakistan et en Chine. Les vagues de chaleur et les incendies de forêt ont ravagé plusieurs pays dans le monde.

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