乌干达妙用保护主义

坎帕拉—在一个风和日丽的午后,我与Gilbert Bukenya博士在他位于维多利亚湖岸边的家里会面。我们交流的话题是乌干达农业的未来。他说:“通过更聪明的耕种,乌干达人不仅能种植更多,还能赚更多的钱。”

更聪明地工作并不是一句空泛的口号;它是非洲农业现代化的关键。作为乌干达粮食自给自足的倡导者,Bukenya想让乌干达人吃更多自产的大米,从而促进农民和碾米业者的生产,同时又能将节省下来的现金用到更需要的地方。Bukenya长久以来就一直推广在高地(相对于湿地稻田)种植一种新品种的非洲稻。它的需水量更小。

推广新稻种是“更聪明地工作”配方的一部分。一旦大米的产量开始提升,Bukenya和其他的乌干达政客们又打出另一张聪明牌:他们通过成功的游说,对外国大米征收了75%的关税,这一政策进一步刺激了大米的生产。据贸易部统计,自2004年以来大米的产量增加了2.5倍达到180,000吨,而同时进口大米的消费仅在2004至2005年之间就下降了一半。

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