O futuro de Fukushima

TÓQUIO – Passaram dois anos desde o acidente nuclear de Fukushima e o interesse internacional no seu impacto está a começar a diminuir. Mas esse impacto continua a ecoar - e não apenas no debate público mundial sobre o futuro da energia nuclear. Mais de cem mil pessoas continuam deslocadas devido ao acidente, algumas perderam a família, a casa, os bens e até mesmo a vontade de viver.

No Japão, a indústria nuclear, os reguladores e o governo têm a responsabilidade de explicarem de forma clara o porquê de a ciência e de a tecnologia não terem conseguido minimizar o risco e as consequências deste acidente num país geologicamente vulnerável,​como o Japão; o porquê de a limpeza exageradamente cara estar a ser realizada em áreas de baixa contaminação, onde o impacto insignificante na saúde pública é esperado; e o porquê de nenhum sistema bem definido e operacional de gestão de resíduos ter sido estabelecido. As lições que se aprenderam podem ajudar não só a reduzir o risco de acidentes futuros, mas também a facilitar a reparação em zonas do mundo que tenham sido contaminadas por substâncias radioactivas ou outras substâncias tóxicas.

O Japão tem uma forte reputação internacional no que diz respeito à gestão de catástrofes naturais. Mas a “tempestade perfeita” do maior terramoto e tsunami desde a industrialização e a fusão dos núcleos de três reactores na central de Fukushima Daiichi, foram além de qualquer cenário anteriormente previsto. O governo nacional e as comunidades locais do Japão não tinham nenhum plano de emergência para a situação que enfrentaram nas zonas contaminadas, resultando em respostas ad hoc marcadas pela ineficiência e pela falta de comunicação, especialmente no que diz respeito ao risco radiológico.

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