Die Zukunft von Fukushima

TOKIO – Seit dem Nuklearunfall von Fukushima sind zwei Jahre vergangen, und das internationale Interesse an dessen Folgen lässt langsam nach. Aber diese Folgen sind immer noch aktuell – und nicht nur für die globale öffentliche Debatte über die Zukunft der Atomenergie. Immer noch sind über hunderttausend Menschen umgesiedelt, und einige haben ihre Familie, ihr Haus, ihren Besitz oder sogar ihren Lebenswillen verloren.

Die Nuklearindustrie, die Regulierungsbehörden und die Regierung von Japan müssen klar erläutern, warum die Risiken und Folgen eines solchen Unfalls in einem geologisch so anfälligen Land wie Japan nicht durch Wissenschaft und Technik minimiert werden konnten, warum in wenig kontaminierten Gegenden unverhältnismäßig teure Säuberungsarbeiten stattfanden und warum es kein gründlich geplantes und ausgeführtes Abfallmanagementsystem gab. Die gelernten Lektionen könnten nicht nur helfen, das Risiko zukünftiger Unfälle zu mindern, sondern auch die Säuberung von Gebieten auf der ganzen Welt erleichtern, die durch radioaktive oder andere giftige Substanzen verunreinigt wurden.

Im Umgang mit Naturkatastrophen hat Japan international einen sehr guten Ruf. Aber das gewaltige Unheil des größten Erdbebens und Tsunamis seit der Industrialisierung und die folgende Schmelze dreier Reaktorkerne in Fukushimas Daiichi-Anlage ging über jegliches vorhergesehene Szenario hinaus. Japans Regierung und Kommunen hatten für die Lage in den kontaminierten Gegenden keinerlei Notfallplan, was zu Ad-Hoc-Reaktionen führte, die insbesondere bezüglich des Strahlenrisikos durch Ineffizienz und schlechte Kommunikation gekennzeichnet waren.

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