欧洲的两速未来

巴黎—年来,欧元危机的深化不但威胁到了欧元区的生存,也威胁到了整个欧盟。尽管金融市场的压力有所减轻,但就现在而言,为这场危机寻找长期解决方案仍是事关欧盟生死存亡的紧迫问题。

在当今高度竞争的全球经济中,欧洲国家相对来说规模较小,人口老龄化严重,负债过度,且能源资源缺乏,研究和发展的投资也不足,这意味着它们的高生活标准和慷慨的社会福利国家难以为继。就个体国家而言,它们无法与新兴市场抗衡;它们需要一个强大的欧盟来面对全球化带来的挑战。

但欧元区的基础制度——货币政策集中,但预算和经济政策仍有各国政府自行决定——从长期看是不可行的。尽管欧洲领导人在制度改革方面取得了一定进步,但目前所采取的措施无法形成经济和预算政策的真正趋同,也无法产生真正的经济联盟。因此,金融市场无法安心。

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