两场葬礼与我们的自由

发自莫斯科——最近,萦绕在我脑际的总是我的曾祖父尼基塔·赫鲁晓夫,我猜首先挑动我思绪的也许是他同尼克松总统的所谓“厨房辩论”刚好过去了整整50周年。然而最近两周在布达佩斯和华沙举行的两场葬礼使我重新思考起了曾祖父所留下来的遗产。两位逝者分别是贝拉·基拉里将军(曾于1956年指挥匈牙利革命的自由战士反对苏军入侵);另一位是波兰哲学家柯拉科夫斯基,其于1956年同斯大林主义决裂,并以此激发了波兰和其他国家的众多知识分子,抛弃了共产主义理念。

对于赫鲁晓夫来说,1956年是最好的一年,也是最坏的一年。在这一年他的秘密讲话成为揭露斯大林罪行的标志性事件。此后不久,苏联古拉格劳改营里的犯人几乎都被释放,一股政治解冻的暖流开始在苏联出现,但却也激发了许许多多这个政权所不能容忍的,与自由有关的秘密言论。尤其在波兰和匈牙利,一股要求变革的地下思潮突然席卷而来。

对于匈牙利来说,这场革命无疑是短暂而辉煌的。这场首次发生在社会主义国家之间的战争打破了苏联同其东欧附属国之间所谓牢不可破的“兄弟般的”联盟的神话。但赫鲁晓夫从没料想到庞大苏联的解体也是他解冻政策中的一部分。于是苏联红军出兵入侵了匈牙利——这场行动的规模甚至比盟军1944年诺曼底登陆入侵欧洲的“D日”还要大。

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