Deux avenirs énergétiques

En l´An 2100, le système énergétique mondial différera radicalement du système actuel. Les énergies renouvelables, comme l´énergie solaire, éolienne, hydroélectrique et les biocarburants représenteront une large part de la palette énergétique et l´énergie nucléaire aura également sa place. L´homme aura trouvé des moyens de lutter contre la pollution de l´air et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre. Les nouvelles technologies auront permis de réduire la quantité d´énergie nécessaire au fonctionnement des bâtiments et des véhicules.

L´avenir lointain paraît en effet radieux, mais beaucoup dépend de la voie que nous emprunterons pour y parvenir. Il existe deux chemins possibles. Appelons le premier scénario Scramble (Ruée). Comme un rallye tout-terrain au travers d´un désert montagneux, il promet sensations fortes et compétition acharnée. Néanmoins, “qui trop se hâte reste en chemin” est un proverbe souvent avéré et beaucoup resteront sur le bas-côté de la route.

Le scénario alternatif peut être dénommé Blueprints (Plans directeurs), ce qui évoque un trajet prudent, avec quelques faux départs, sur une route encore en travaux. Que nous arrivions sains et saufs à notre destination dépend de la discipline des conducteurs et de l´ingéniosité de tous ceux qui participent à l´effort de construction. L´innovation technologique se charge de générer les émotions.

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