Paul Lachine

A dos décadas de Varsovia

VARSOVIA – “Polonia, diez años; Hungría, diez meses; Alemania Oriental, diez semanas; Checoslovaquia, diez días”. Muchas personas repetían eso en Praga en noviembre de 1989, lo que reflejaba el orgullo y la alegría de la Revolución de Terciopelo, pero también el esfuerzo sostenido que fue necesario para acabar con el comunismo, cuya caída comenzó en Varsovia en febrero de ese año.

En efecto, la descomposición del comunismo empezó diez años antes en Polonia, durante la primera peregrinación del Papa Juan Pablo II a su patria, una visita que sacudió al gobierno comunista hasta sus cimientos. En menos de un año, los trabajadores polacos estaban realizando huelgas por el derecho de establecer sindicatos independientes y durante dos semanas ocuparon fábricas del Estado para alcanzar su objetivo. Karl Marx habría estado orgulloso de ellos, pero el retrato que colgaba de las rejas del astillero Lenin en Gdansk durante la huelga era el del Papa.

El sindicato Solidaridad, que se creó en 1980, rompió el monopolio del Partido Comunista sobre el poder. El movimiento unió a diez millones de personas: trabajadores y maestros, campesinos y estudiantes, curas y librepensadores entre ellas –toda la sociedad civil. Esta incipiente democracia fue duramente interrumpida cuando en diciembre de 1981 se impuso la ley marcial, se declaró ilegal a Solidaridad y se arrestó a los disidentes.  Pero este ataque totalitario no podía durar. La democracia no murió; simplemente pasó a la clandestinidad.

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