Paul Lachine

Zwei Jahrzehnte nach Warschau

WARSCHAU – „Polen – zehn Jahre, Ungarn – zehn Monate, Ostdeutschland – zehn Wochen, Tschechoslowakei – zehn Tage.“ Das zwitscherten im November 1989 viele in Prag und zeigten damit den Stolz auf und die Freude über die Samtene Revolution, es spiegelte aber auch die anhaltenden Anstrengungen wieder, die notwendig waren, um den Kommunismus zu beenden, dessen Niedergang im Februar zuvor in Warschau begonnen hatte.

Tatsächlich begann der Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus zehn Jahre zuvor in Polen, während der ersten Pilgerreise von Papst Johannes Paul II. in seine Heimat, ein Besuch, der die Herrschaft des Kommunismus bis ins Mark erschütterte. Innerhalb eines Jahres streikten polnische Arbeiter für das Recht, unabhängige Gewerkschaften zu gründen, und organisierten zweiwöchige Sit-ins in staatlichen Fabriken, um ihr Ziel zu erreichen. Karl Marx wäre stolz auf sie gewesen, allerdings war es das Portrait des Papstes, das während des Streiks am Tor der Danziger Leninwerft hing.

Die Gewerkschaft Solidarność, die 1980 aus der Taufe gehoben wurde, brach das Machtmonopol der Kommunistischen Partei. Die Bewegung vereinte zehn Millionen Menschen, unter ihnen Arbeiter und Professoren, Bauern und Studenten, Priester und Freidenker – die gesamte Zivilgesellschaft. Diese junge Demokratie wurde jäh unterbrochen, als im Dezember 1981 das Kriegsrecht eingeführt wurde: Solidarność wurde verboten und Dissidenten wurden verhaftet. Doch konnte dieser totalitäre Blitzkrieg nicht lange dauern. Die Demokratie starb nicht; sie ging lediglich in den Untergrund.

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