Paul Lachine

Dvě desetiletí od Varšavy

VARŠAVA – „Polsko – deset let, Maďarsko – deset měsíců, NDR – deset týdnů, Československo – deset dní“. Mnoho lidí si v listopadu 1989 v Praze šuškalo tento slogan, který odrážel pýchu a radost ze sametové revoluce, ale i vytrvalé úsilí potřebné ke skoncování s komunismem, jehož zánik započal v únoru toho roku ve Varšavě.

Rozpad komunismu nicméně v Polsku začal už o deset let dříve během první pouti papeže Jana Pavla II. do vlasti. Tato návštěva otřásla komunistickou mocí v samotných základech. Netrvalo ani rok a polští dělníci stávkovali za právo založit nezávislé odbory a zorganizovali ve státních podnicích dvoutýdenní okupační stávku, aby svého cíle dosáhli. Karel Marx by na ně byl pyšný, avšak na bráně vedoucí do Leninových loděnic v Gdaňsku visel během stávky portrét papeže.

Hnutí Solidarita, které se zrodilo v roce 1980, rozbilo mocenský monopol komunistické strany. Celkem sjednotilo deset milionů lidí: dělníků i profesorů, rolníků i studentů, kněží i volnomyšlenkářů, zkrátka celou občanskou společnost. Čerstvě zrozenou demokracii hrubě přerušilo vyhlášení výjimečného stavu v prosinci 1981, kdy byla Solidarita postavena mimo zákon a disidenti zatčeni. Tato totalitní blesková válka však nemohla vydržet. Demokracie nezemřela; pouze se stáhla do podzemí.

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