Paul Lachine

华沙二十年

华沙-“波兰——用了十年,匈牙利——用了十个月,东德——用了十个星期,捷克斯洛伐克——用了十天。”1989年11月,在布拉格有许多人如是说,这种说法反映了天鹅绒革命(Velvet Revolution)带来的自豪和喜悦,也反映了各国结束共产主义所需的持续努力的时间——在华沙,共产主义早在1988年2月份就开始了其走向消亡的历程。

事实上,在波兰,共产主义在布拉格天鹅绒革命发生十年前就开始走向衰败了——1979年教皇约翰·保罗二世首次访问了自己的祖国波兰,他的访问从根本上动摇了波兰共产党的统治。在教皇访问波兰后的一年内,波兰工人开始举行罢工,要求获得建立独立工会的权利,并用在国有工厂进行两个星期的静坐的方式,来实现他们的目标。卡尔·马克思可能会为这些工人感到自豪,但是,在波兰工人罢工期间,悬挂在格但斯克的列宁造船厂门上的,却是教皇的头像。

诞生于1980年的波兰团结工会,打破了波兰共产党对权力的垄断。团结工会运动使一千万波兰人团结起来了,这些人中既有工人也有教授,既有农民也有学生,既有牧师也有自由思想家——波兰社会各个阶层的人都有。波兰1981年颁布的戒严令,使这一新生的民主遭到了严重的破坏,团结工会也被宣布为非法,持不同政见的人士遭到了逮捕。但是,波兰共产党的这种极权主义闪电战不可能持久。波兰的民主力量没有死亡;它只是转到了地下。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/5wVlmH2/zh;
  1. Chris J Ratcliffe/Getty Images

    The Brexit Surrender

    European Union leaders meeting in Brussels have given the go-ahead to talks with Britain on post-Brexit trade relations. But, as European Council President Donald Tusk has said, the most difficult challenge – forging a workable deal that secures broad political support on both sides – still lies ahead.

  2. The Great US Tax Debate

    ROBERT J. BARRO vs. JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS on the impact of the GOP tax  overhaul.


    • Congressional Republicans are finalizing a tax-reform package that will reshape the business environment by lowering the corporate-tax rate and overhauling deductions. 

    • But will the plan's far-reaching changes provide the boost to investment and growth that its backers promise?


    ROBERT J. BARRO | How US Corporate Tax Reform Will Boost Growth

    JASON FURMAN & LAWRENCE H. SUMMERS | Robert Barro's Tax Reform Advocacy: A Response

  3. Murdoch's Last Stand?

    Rupert Murdoch’s sale of 21st Century Fox’s entertainment assets to Disney for $66 billion may mark the end of the media mogul’s career, which will long be remembered for its corrosive effect on democratic discourse on both sides of the Atlantic. 

    From enabling the rise of Donald Trump to hacking the telephone of a murdered British schoolgirl, Murdoch’s media empire has staked its success on stoking populist rage.

  4. Bank of England Leon Neal/Getty Images

    The Dangerous Delusion of Price Stability

    Since the hyperinflation of the 1970s, which central banks were right to combat by whatever means necessary, maintaining positive but low inflation has become a monetary-policy obsession. But, because the world economy has changed dramatically since then, central bankers have started to miss the monetary-policy forest for the trees.

  5. Harvard’s Jeffrey Frankel Measures the GOP’s Tax Plan

    Jeffrey Frankel, a professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a former member of President Bill Clinton’s Council of Economic Advisers, outlines the five criteria he uses to judge the efficacy of tax reform efforts. And in his view, the US Republicans’ most recent offering fails miserably.

  6. A box containing viles of human embryonic Stem Cell cultures Sandy Huffaker/Getty Images

    The Holy Grail of Genetic Engineering

    CRISPR-Cas – a gene-editing technique that is far more precise and efficient than any that has come before it – is poised to change the world. But ensuring that those changes are positive – helping to fight tumors and mosquito-borne illnesses, for example – will require scientists to apply the utmost caution.

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now