Paul Lachine

华沙二十年

华沙-“波兰——用了十年,匈牙利——用了十个月,东德——用了十个星期,捷克斯洛伐克——用了十天。”1989年11月,在布拉格有许多人如是说,这种说法反映了天鹅绒革命(Velvet Revolution)带来的自豪和喜悦,也反映了各国结束共产主义所需的持续努力的时间——在华沙,共产主义早在1988年2月份就开始了其走向消亡的历程。

事实上,在波兰,共产主义在布拉格天鹅绒革命发生十年前就开始走向衰败了——1979年教皇约翰·保罗二世首次访问了自己的祖国波兰,他的访问从根本上动摇了波兰共产党的统治。在教皇访问波兰后的一年内,波兰工人开始举行罢工,要求获得建立独立工会的权利,并用在国有工厂进行两个星期的静坐的方式,来实现他们的目标。卡尔·马克思可能会为这些工人感到自豪,但是,在波兰工人罢工期间,悬挂在格但斯克的列宁造船厂门上的,却是教皇的头像。

诞生于1980年的波兰团结工会,打破了波兰共产党对权力的垄断。团结工会运动使一千万波兰人团结起来了,这些人中既有工人也有教授,既有农民也有学生,既有牧师也有自由思想家——波兰社会各个阶层的人都有。波兰1981年颁布的戒严令,使这一新生的民主遭到了严重的破坏,团结工会也被宣布为非法,持不同政见的人士遭到了逮捕。但是,波兰共产党的这种极权主义闪电战不可能持久。波兰的民主力量没有死亡;它只是转到了地下。

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