二十五年与HIV/AIDS的抗争

自从免疫缺乏综合症(AIDS)被人们认识以来已经过去了二十五个年头。从那时起所获得的知识是激动人心的,而基础研究被转化成拯救生命的治疗方法的步伐也是前所未有的。

在发现了人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)是艾滋病的致病原因后,接着有解释了它的致病机理、自然史、流行病学,创立了诊断性血液检验、开发了抗逆转录病毒药物。1996年,对于一类名为蛋白酶抑制剂的首批药物的批准带来一种多药、抗HIV疗程,即高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART)的被采用。这一进展极大地改观了生活的质量,并且增强了HIV感染者对生命的期望。

此外,给感染HIV病毒的孕妇和新生儿服用抗逆转录病毒药物后,在预防母婴传染HIV病毒方面取得了巨大的成功。其结果是,自从这些合成药物被引入以来,单单在美国就已经至少挽救了累计三百万年的生命。现在我们已经有了超过二十四中被认可的抗HIV药物和合成药物,并且还有源源不断的处于研发和临床试验等各种不同阶段的下一代药物。

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