Populismus im 21. Jahrhundert

In Venezuela, Bolivien und Ecuador sei – so heißt es – eine neue Linke geboren worden. Von den Präsidenten dieser Länder wird sie als „Sozialismus des 21. Jahrhunderts“ bezeichnet. Doch der vorgeblichen Neuartigkeit ihrer Vision zum Trotz scheinen ihre Handlungen lediglich jene selbstzerstörerische Politik nachzuvollziehen, die bereits Kuba so viel Leid gebracht hat.

Anders als die alten Linksbewegungen, die eine Strategie des bewaffneten Kampfes verfolgten, sind der venezolanische Präsident Hugo Chávez, der bolivianische Präsident Evo Morales und der ecuadorianische Präsident Rafael Correa mittels der Urne an die Macht gelangt. Als sie dann im Amt waren, wandten sie sich mit der Forderung nach Verfassungsreformen an die Massen, um diese Macht auszuweiten.

In Venezuela hat Chávez seine politische Position durch eine verfassungsgebende Versammlung gestärkt, welche die Verfassung änderte. Boliviens Evo Morales hat es ebenfalls geschafft, eine derartige Versammlung durchzusetzen, wenn auch mit unklaren Ergebnissen. Und auch Correa droht „den traditionellen Parteien, inländischen Oligarchien und der dominanten Weltmacht“ – den gemeinsamen Feinden aller drei Präsidenten – mit Verfassungsänderungen.

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