Le populisme du 21° siècle

Au Vénézuéla, en Bolivie et en Equateur, une nouvelle gauche serait née, "le socialisme du 21° siècle", aux dires de leurs présidents respectifs, Hugo Chavez, Evo Morales et Rafael Correra. Mais en dépit de la nouveauté supposée de leur conception, leurs actes ne sont qu'une copie de la politique autodestructrice qui a fait tellement de mal à Cuba.

Contrairement aux anciens mouvements de gauche qui comptaient sur la lutte armée, ces dirigeants sont arrivés au pouvoir par les urnes. Une fois en place, ils ont réussi à obtenir le soutien des masses et à réformer la Constitution pour accroître leur pouvoir. Au Vénézuéla, Chavez a renforcé son pouvoir en mettant en place une Assemblée constituante qui a modifié la Constitution. En Bolivie, Morales est parvenu à imposer une assemblée du même genre, et Correra en Equateur brandit la menace d'une réforme constitutionnelle contre "les partis traditionnels, les oligarchies et l'Empire", les ennemis communs des trois présidents.

Le stratagème de l'Assemblée constituante s'est révélé très efficace jusqu'à présent pour aider ces nouveaux caudillos à renforcer leur pouvoir. Comme il s'inscrit dans un processus de changement global, cela leur permet d'éviter des débats sur des réformes précises.

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