Chernobyl, un punto de inflexión

El accidente nuclear en Chernobyl, del que este mes se cumplen 20 años, fue tal vez -incluso más que la perestroika iniciada por mi gobierno- la verdadera causa del colapso de la Unión Soviética. De hecho, la catástrofe de Chernobyl fue un punto de inflexión histórica que marcó una era anterior y una posterior al desastre.

La misma mañana de la explosión en el centro nuclear de Chernobyl el 26 de abril de 1986, el Politburó se reunió para analizar la situación y, a continuación, organizó una comisión de gobierno para hacer frente a las consecuencias. La comisión debía controlar la situación y asegurarse de que se tomasen medidas serias, particularmente en cuanto a la salud de las personas en la zona del desastre. Más aún, la Academia de Ciencias designó un grupo de destacados científicos que fue enviado de inmediato a la región de Chernobyl.

El Politburó no tuvo de manera inmediata información apropiada y completa que reflejara la situación posterior a la explosión. Sin embargo, había en su interior un consenso general de que debíamos entregar la información de manera transparente tras recibirla. Eso estaría dentro del espíritu de la política de Glasnost que para entonces ya estaba bien establecida en la Unión Soviética.

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