Réveil de la Turquie et déclin du panarabisme

TEL AVIV – Le fiasco mortel de la « Flottille de Paix » menée par la Turquie à Gaza a mis en évidence les tensions croissantes au sein de l’alliance israélo-turque. Mais il a surtout permis d’exposer les raisons sous-jacentes plus profondes du revirement de la Turquie d’une orientation occidentale vers une alliance avec les régimes voyous de la région et les acteurs non étatiques radicaux pour devenir un acteur majeur au Moyen-Orient.

Politique étrangère et fondations nationales sont indissociables. L’identité des nations, leur ethos, a toujours déterminé les priorités stratégiques. Les bourdes d’Israël ont, bien sûr, joué un rôle dans l’érosion de son alliance avec la Turquie. Mais l’effondrement de sa vieille alliance de la périphérie, comprenant la Turquie, le Shah d’Iran et l’Ethiopie, est plus lié aux changements révolutionnaires de ces pays – l’accession au pouvoir de l’Ayatollah Khomeini, la fin du régime de l’empereur Hailé Sélassié, et maintenant le revirement islamique du Premier ministre turc Recep Tayyip Erdogan – qu’avec la politique d’Israël.

La crise actuelle révèle l’extrême complexité de l’identité turque, son oscillation entre son héritage Kémaliste tourné vers l’occident et son héritage ottoman oriental. Rabroué par l’Union Européenne, Erdogan fait pencher la balance vers ce dernier.

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