La Turquie va en Europe en passant par l’Orient

ISTANBUL – Il y a encore quelques années, l’Europe figurait au premier plan dans l’agenda de la Turquie. Le gouvernement fraîchement élu de Recep Tayyip Erdogan s’était embarqué dans une série de réformes ambitieuses visant à satisfaire aux critères politiques d’adhésion à l’Union européenne. Fin 2004, l’EU décida d’entamer les négociations d’adhésion.

L’euphorie proeuropéenne n’a pas fait long feu : dans la pratique, les négociations sont aujourd’hui dans une impasse. L’euro-scepticisme est à son apogée en Turquie, alimenté par le discours de certains dirigeants politiques européens opposés à son adhésion, et par le propre échec de l’UE à balayer les doutes quant à la faisabilité de l’éventuelle adhésion de la Turquie. Le soutien national à l’adhésion européenne, de 70 % au début des négociations, tourne aujourd’hui plutôt autour de 40 %.

Rien de surprenant à ce que le gouvernement turc ait aussi perdu son enthousiasme pour les réformes liées à l’UE. Depuis plus de deux ans, la Commission européenne trouve peu de commentaires positifs à faire dans son rapport annuel sur la réforme politique.

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